mercury poisoning in grassy narrows

Agyeman, Julian, Peter Cole, Randolph Haluza-DeLay, and Pat O’Riley (Eds). Since taking the position, O’Regan has visited the community once. Various community members, such as Judy da Silva, stand by this belief and consider the blockade site a sacred space (p.o 28 Sept 2012). “Our livelihood was taken away. In 1970, the high levels of contamination forced the community to stop commercial and tourist fishing (Kerr 2010) - one of the last avenues for traditional economic living (Kraus 2013). “Volunteers, NIMBYs and environmental justice: dilemmas of democratic practice.” Antipode 28(2): 175–92. Registered Population: Grassy Narrows First Nation. “Autoethnography: An Overview.” Forum: Qualitative Social Research Sozialforschung 12(1), retrieved from It is taking place to educate and mobilize Indigenous youth and settler supporters about protecting water from contamination for future generations. A case study is “expected to capture the complexity of a single case” (Johannson 2003). As Long as the River Flows. Therefore, I do not draw any definite conclusions about Grassy Narrows’ members’ experiences with mercury poisoning. From the Roots of Violence to the Route for Allied Relationships: The Role of Allies in the Struggle Towards Safety for Indigenous Women in Canada . “The Political Economy of Environmental Inequality: The Social Distribution of Risk as an Environmental Injustice.” In Julian Agyeman, Peter Cole, Randolph Haluza-DeLay, and Pat O’Riley (Eds. This paper is exploratory and my conclusions only suppositional for two reasons. They went beyond this, “affirming both the integrity of tribes and bands; as well they recognized the right of Indian people to manage affairs on their own land, in accordance with their customs and traditions” (Saskatchewan Indian 1975: 6). 2010. The article published in CMAJ by Mosa and Duffin outlines the history of mercury poisoning of the Grassy Narrows First Nation along the English–Wabigoon River. Retrieved from Kulchyski, Peter. Individuals like Judy are not content with simply talking about resistance, especially because living in line with traditional values is a great form of resistance because it undermines the assimilative goals of a cultural oppressor (Bhabha 1985). 2002. After years of fighting to be heard, in December 2017, then-Indigenous Services Minister Jane Philpott promised the community that the federal government would pay for the construction and operation of a treatment center in Grassy Narrows. Residents of Grassy Narrows and their supporters lie on the ground in front of the Indigenous Services Canada Office in Toronto. Grassy Narrow’s fight for clean water began almost immediately after the discovery of mercury in the water. Michigan: Pantheon Books. Bill Fobister is a former Grassy Narrows chief whose mercury-poisoning symptoms include worsening tunnel vision and impaired senses of taste and smell. 27 Sept 2012). Willow, Anna J. Parts of land were surrendered in exchange for one-time cash payments (Satzewich & Liodakis 2007). 2002. “Grassy Narrows Protests Mercury Poisoning.” CBC News Toronto. DVD. Our delegation met community members, including elders and traditional teachers, to learn about cultural practices and struggles over land rights. The involved corporations, and the Ontario and federal governments, continue to impede on the Anishinaabe peoples’ traditional ways of life through various tactics, including the refusal to address the issue of contamination and the continual exploitation of Grassy Narrows land for commercial gains (da Silva 2008). Literature Review: Environmental Injustice, Colonialism, and Grassy Narrows. It also features photos of family members who have passed away. According to a summary of the report, the lack of elders in Grassy Narrows is representative of lower life expectancy and has potential to lead to a loss of traditional values. Indigenous groups’ identities, including those who are animist (Hallowell 1975), require a relationship with territory different from land ownership and control; instead, a reciprocal relationship of mutual respect (Woolford 2009). Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development in Canada. Two, many Indigenous perspectives, the treaties secured their traditional territories, to ensure self-governance, and self-determination (Satzewich & Liodakis 2007). Members of Grassy Narrows continue to actively struggle against destructive colonial practices and for environmental justice. Résumé : À l’aide d’un cadre d’analyse d’injustice environnementale, cet article explore comment le cas d’empoissonnement au mercure à Grassy Narrows, une communauté Anishinaabe du Nord-Ouest de l’Ontario, fait partie de processus coloniaux généralisés au Canada. Finally, this case was investigated in its natural context through my personal time spent within Grassy Narrows and in Winnipeg with Grassy Narrows’ activist groups. Respect of each group’s way of life was to be maintained. Orui, Tadashi. 2011. I did not make observations within the community using an objective positivistic approach. It must “be a complex functioning unit, be investigated in its natural context with a multitude of methods, and be contemporary” (ibid). Even those sections do not remain under Indigenous control. Then, the community began to notice the effects of mercury poisoning. Eze, Emmanuel Chukwudi. Running through their traditional territory of the Whiskey Jack Forest is the English-Wabigoon river system. More recent literature on environmental injustice expands on Rawl’s model by analysing the underlying mechanisms that determine the patterns of distribution. The plant used mercury to manufacture chlorine, which was in turn used to bleach paper at the Dryden Paper Company Ltd. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. The actors with power within these procedural realms undermine marginal populations’ ability to participate in decision making that affects their lives (Cole & Foster 2001). This event demonstrates environmental justice issues being addressed using a networked approach embedded in cultural practices and decolonizing strategies. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, Law and Society Series. The Papom documents reflect the oral history much more closely than the government’s version (ibid). Chrissy Swain, an Anishinaabe-kwe from Grassy Narrows, explains, “People within the community still partake in spiritual ceremonies, pick wild berries, fish and hunt” (Wolfson 2011), but not to an extent where community relies solely on traditional practices, and therefore identity is affected. Currently, three copies of the Treaty exist: the Anishinaabe’s oral history, a document in possession of the government, and the Métis translator’s notes called the Papom documents (Blaikie 2012). Food is now purchased in Kenora. The State nearly controls all of the land and resources in Canada and continues creating future plans to exploit Indigenous territories (da Silva 2008). We are not going away.”. Plans for new resource extraction projects include mineral extraction and mining (da Silva 2008). As Satzewich and Liodakis (2007: 39) point out: “The federal government tends to favour narrow, literal interpretations of the obligations outlined in the treaties. Rather, these fields demonstrate patterns of relations where certain practices and ideologies are valued over others. Fourth Russell Tribunal: On The Rights Of The Indians Of The Americas. “Speaking for Ourselves, Speaking Together: Environmental Justice in Canada.” In Julian Agyeman, Peter Cole, Randolph Haluza-DeLay, and Pat O’Riley (Eds.) Unemployment led to high rates of alcoholism, personal withdrawal, negative self-evaluation, and routine violence (Clement 2003). Archived at Chartier, Clem. Grassy Narrows’ youth and the Clan Mothers implemented the blockade in 2002 because they believed it was necessary to protect the earth- this was their job and obligation (Blaikie 2012; Wolfson 2011). Now, more than ever, the attention of Trudeau and his government is crucial. Benefits include access to resources, opportunities (such as employment), and freedoms to make desirable choices. Speech presented at the Methodologies in Housing Research organized by the Royal Institute of Technology in cooperation with the International Association of People-Environment Studies, Stockholm. Mercury poisoning as part of unequal distributional patterns of environmental hazards amongst colonized communities in Canada. “We’ve been hit with a lot of things. The government sought to monopolize traditional Anishinaabe land (Asubpeechoseewagong Netum Anishinabek 2010) by encroaching on their ways of life through modernization, including the implementation of residential schools in the 1920’s, elective chieftaincy beginning in 1933, and discrimination against Indigenous religious practices in the beginning in the 1930’s (Vecsey 1987). 2007. While the main directive of the blockade is to address clear-cutting on their land, it also attracts people’s attention to other demands, such as having “the province … come back to the table to resolve the mercury issue" (Schertow 2010). "My parents had mercury poisoning — they died. Non-Indigenous negotiators, however, viewed treaties as tools to confine Indigenous people to reserves and as a consequence profit from traditional territories via annuity payments (ibid). The most widely known of these programs was the formation of a federal residential school system. To do so, the case study approach values using a variety of sources to “[ensure] that the issue is not explored through one lens, but rather a variety of lenses which allows for multiple facets of the phenomenon to be revealed and understood” (Baxter & Jack 2008: 544). Ideally, this paper would be more community-led to avoid further misrepresentation of the community. 1873-2016: The tragic story of the mercury poisoning of the water, fish, and people of the Grassy Narrows First Nation Last week, environmental organization Earthroots came out with evidence of mercury contamination upstream from the Grassy Narrows First Nation. At the same time, major corporations reaped the benefits. The relationship between Canada and the people of the First Nations has always been touched by conflict. Mercury levels remain elevated in the animals and fish and are concentrated in top sediment layers, proving contamination is recent (ibid). … Adams, Howard. The burdens of environmental hazards end up falling upon these excluded populations because they do not get a say in how and where industrial projects operate. One common tactic involves granting “illusionary gains” on the basis of lies and deceit (ibid: 48). Systematic theft of Indigenous lands and resources also continues by multinational corporations such as Weyerhauser, and up until recently Abitibi- two giant logging companies in Canada and the U.S. (da Silva 2008). Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. I explore how this case could be understood within the context of environmental injustice, capitalism, and colonialism. Fraser, Nancy. IPSM started out as the Friends of Grassy Narrows in 2003 and since branched into a broadly-focused solidarity group that also looks at other communities’ issues such as fracking, the Tar sands (Caine 2012), the Keystone Pipeline, oil spills, Sun Peaks’ development in British Columbia, and water contamination. This land supplies the community’s basic needs for subsistence and is essential to their culture, identity, and “life as a nation – as Anishinaabe” (da Silva 2008). There is limited literature on Grassy Narrows itself. His paper describes the consequences of systematic land theft, misrecognition of Indigenous worldviews, and procedural injustices. Continued exposure to mercury can lead to permanent brain and kidney damage and, often, early death. I further this argument by suggesting that activist work should not only involve stopping trees from being cut down, but a broader goal of decolonization. “To Treaty or Not to Treaty? Canada, 2019. 28 Sept 2012). Canada, 2019. Though the Canadian government’s policies on Indigenous people have been abusive historically, the resilience and fight of Grassy Narrows seemingly won out. As a result, the Anishinaabe community is denied access to decision making regarding their Treaty 3 territory. Vancouver: Greystone Books. Caine, Natalie. Capitalist expansion deliberately targets culture to weaken the community; cultural leaders demonstrate resilience in the face of persistent adversity. An important aspect of government and corporate misrecognition of Anishinaabe worldviews is their tendency to use science to legitimize their arguments. Teachings from an American Earth. The blockade mobilized after a series of other tactics failed: members wrote letters of complaints to companies, raised concerns at negotiations about the effects of the industrial projects on their lands, protested in Kenora, and marched all the way to Toronto in protest with limited results (ibid). Winnipeg: The University of Manitoba Press. However, this approach overlooks structural inequality that causes maldistribution of environmental hazards (ibid). 2010, April 6. Resiliently, Grassy Narrows’ community members continue living in many ways congruous with their traditions (p.o. From my personal interactions with several activists from Grassy Narrows, I observe that a many of the community’s activists value direct action. 1998. It’s contaminated my children and probably their children too as well unless something is done,” said Jason Kejick, a Grassy Narrows community member, during an interview prior to his community’s march through Toronto. Aujourd’hui les membres de Grassy Narrows continuent de lutter activement contre ces pratiques coloniales destructrices par leur engagement envers la justice environnementale – un combat auquel je m’allie humblement. This section analyzes various interconnecting historical processes of capitalism and colonialism and how Grassy Narrows’ experiences with industrial hazards developed from these processes. Looking at Sheila Fraser’s 2009 Auditor General of Canada fall report, there appears to be no federal regulations in Canada to environmentally protect any reserve lands, including Grassy Narrows (Schertow 2010). 13 Nov 2012). My methodology starts with a critical literature review, used to “tell a story and help to advance our understandings of what is already known” (Jesson & Lacey 2006: 139). Since 2012, I have attended meetings and workshops hosted by activists from the community. I understand the interconnectedness of environmental injustice, colonialism, and Grassy Narrows First Nation through the methodological process outlined in this paper. Initial Indigenous and settler contact in what is now known as Canada occurred in the eleventh century, however, it was not until the fifteenth century that Europeans began settling the East coast and entrepreneurs began claiming territory on the West coast for resource exploitation (Woolford 2009). As Cole and Foster (2001: 79) point out, “focusing on the distributional results alone obscures the social structure and institutional context in which environmental decisions are made”. Between 1962 and 1970 a Dryden, Ont., pulp and paper plant dumped 10 tonnes of mercury, a potent neurotoxin, in the English-Wabigoon River. 28 Sept 2012). These claims are suspect considering that doctors and professionals have consistently found dangerously high levels of mercury in both the water system and the local food supply, as well as in the local residents (Schertow 2010). 2009. WATCH: Grassy Narrows chief calls for end to delays on building health centre to deal with mercury poisoning effects – Dec 3, 2019 Two forest-product companies are … It’s become a source of great frustration for Chief Rudy Turtle and his community. The community is divided over the appropriateness of certain tactics (p.o. Initially, it protected Indigenous lands because success of the fur trade relied on having large amounts of undisturbed lands for hunting space (Satzewich & Liodakis 2007). Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting1779 Massachusetts Avenue, NWSuite #615Washington, DC 20036(202), Jeff 460-4710, “We will illuminate dark places and, with a deep sense of responsibility, interpret these troubled times.”. A Theory of Justice. Grassy Narrows already filed their appeal with the Supreme Court of Canada in response to Ontario’s court ruling to issue logging permits on Indigenous territories (Forest Talk 2013). Alacantara, Christopher. "[We want] our issues to be dealt with seriously by the medical establishment in Canada and in Ontario," says Grassy Narrows First Nations Chief Simon Fobister in 1985 (CBC 2010). 28 Sept 2012). “Hashinoqwah.” In Kiera Ladner & Leanne Simpson (Eds. The agreement proposed by O’Regan was not legally binding and Grassy Narrows community members were dissatisfied with the proposed agreement, finding it to be an unreliable promise. (more…) Grassy Narrows, Wapekeka, and Kl First Nations enter into Mutual Cooperation Protocol, pledge to stand together to protect the Lands and Waters of their Homelands San Francisco: City Lights Books. This prevents companies from having any repercussions for their environmental hazards (Vecsey 1987). 2001. “Grassy Narrows Reserve: Mercury Pollution, Social Disruption, and Natural Resources: A Question of Autonomy.” American Indian Quarterly 11(4): 287-314. One of the main things that our people did, had to do with the river and that was taken away from our people,” Isaacs said. In resistance movements, raising public awareness is always paramount (Starhawk 2011). In recent years, it has been uncovered that the company also buried drums of mercury underground, poisoning the groundwater in the area as well. One-time cash payments became too expensive. I avoid autoethnography because I did not personally experience the socio-historical colonial processes that led to the mercury poisoning. They are a dynamic social group existing as ongoing culturally-specific processes of relations that are ever-changing and in a constant state of flux (Powell 2011; Woolford 2009). Hidden From History: The Canadian Holocaust. According to Chief Turtle, the government official that the community most wants the eyes and ears of is Prime Minister Justin Trudeau. “The Violence of the Letter: Land Claims and Continuing Colonial Conquest in Canada.” Canadian Dimension 41(1). (personal observation) 28 Sept 2012) [1]. “Mercury Poisoning in grassy Narrows?” The CBC Digital Archives Website. For this reason, “land and environment are not simply means of sustaining group life, but as key components of group life” (ibid: 89). Environmental injustice is a more encompassing approach that considers race, as well as many other factors. These theorists agree that all four aspects of environmental injustice need to be addressed for justice to ensue. On August 16, 2011, the Ontario Supreme Court ruled in favour of Grassy Narrows, protecting their right to hunt and trap on their land (ibid). Churchill, Ward. Their implications go much further than the victims feeling insulted or devalued (Schlosberg 2007). Tortured People: The Politics of Colonization (2nd ed.). Vast lands were appropriated from Indigenous cultures and only the smallest sections of land were “gifted back” to them (Smith 2012). da Silva, Judy. The staple protein for many within the community is fish (da Silva 2008). Government agencies utilize self-proclaimed “plenary power” over Aboriginal groups and their lands to shirk Indigenous groups’ environmental protection standards (Churchill 1999). Raphael Fobister stands before a crowd and describes the constant ringing in his ears, a symptom of mercury poisoning. 2000. da Silva, Judy. Historically, Indigenous land rights have been upheld by the courts, although this has been an underrepresented outcome (see Alacantara, 2007; Hamley 1993; McGaw 2003; Perskey 1998). European settlers use culture, ideas, and language to create discourses surrounding Indigenous groups and use these discourses to control them (Ngugi 1986; Said 1978). Understanding Grassy Narrows mercury poisoning within broader historical processes of capitalism and colonialism. In May 2019, O’Regan visited Grassy Narrows to sign an agreement on the construction and operation of a health facility in the community. Decades of government inaction. “Grassy Narrows wants justice for destructive logging and mercury poisoning.” Delgamuukw: The Supreme Court of Canada Decision on Aboriginal Title. [1][1] The Grassy Narrows First Nation is located about While some value direct action on the ground, others feel the court-system is a better avenue for protecting their land (ibid). 1993. ), Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. Importantly, their actions demonstrate that decolonization and environmental justice cannot be understood separately of one another. Since then, there have been no major contributions to the literature besides magazine and journal articles (see APTN National News 2013; CBC 2010, 2012, 2013; Ball 2012; Caine 2012; Forest Talk 2013; Free Grassy Narrows 2013; Hale 2013; Kraus 2013; Rodgers 2009; Saxe 2012; Schertow 2010) and two documentary films (see Clement 2003; Orui 2010). Western reality became reified as representing something better, reflecting higher orders of thinking (Smith 2012: 48). These are not just issues of the past. Fearing this outcome, the people of Grassy Narrows are asking the government to put the money they were promised in a trust to ensure that it remains theirs. Regan, Paulette. Grassy Narrows lies about 120 miles east of Winnipeg, with an approximate population of 1490 people (Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development in Canada 2012). The case of mercury poisoning in Grassy Narrows cannot simply be understood as an incident of pollution without looking at the historically created colonial patterns that justify it. Capitalism and industrialization are inherently anti-ecological processes that demand an infinite supply of natural resources to satisfy capitalism’s need for endless growth. To secure these, the European solution was land surrender treaties, which are “about how to extinguish Aboriginal peoples’ title to the land in order to provide a legal basis for settlement, economic expansion, and the eventual formation of the Canadian nation” (Satzewich and Liodakis 2007: 46). First, I am an “outsider” (Smith 2012) to Grassy Narrows. 2001. I include my personal observations from two public events I attended that involved various members of the Grassy Narrows community: the Grassy Narrows Blockade Panel Discussion and Book Launch at the University of Winnipeg on November 13, 2012 and the allied learning delegation I attended from September 27-29, 2012, in Grassy Narrows. Since 2008, Grassy Narrows has led annual walks to draw attention to Indigenous and environmental justice issues (Wolfson 2011). While it reduced in intensity in 2009, the blockade remains the longest running in North American history. Procedural injustice involves different groups having unequal access to decisions about industrial production sites and how hazards are distributed (Honneth 1992; Lake 1996; Schlosberg 2007). I do my prayers everyday. Capitalism and industrialization “systematically subordinate nature in pursuit of endless accumulation and production on ever larger scales” (Clausen & Clark 2005: 423). European colonizers claimed any land they come across, believing this was their right by God (Adams 1999). OTTAWA — The federal government has signed an agreement with Grassy Narrows First Nation that will see a long-promised treatment centre for residents with mercury poisoning finally built in the community. Starhawk. My research methodology combines critical literature review and case study with autoethnography. Fish, their main source of food, contained extremely high levels of mercury from toxic dumping by the Dryden Chemicals pulp and paper mill upstream (Kraus 2013). They are in the midst of a number of legal cases, trying to protect the land from harmful industrial activity that affects hunting, trapping, and fishing (p.o. Cultural groups cannot be understood as fixed and static entities (Woolford 2009). 2. There is ongoing mercury poisoning in the water from Weyerhauser logging company’s clear-cutting and dumping of cancer-causing toxic waste (ibid). 2011. Toxins travel to large organs and in pregnant women the mercury settles in the fetus, leading to birth defects (Vecsey 1987). London-Verso. At first, the agencies including Ottawa and Health Canada and Ontario Ministry of Health conducted diligent tests of Grassy Narrows’ mercury levels and “media accounts of the pollution raised Canadian consciousness about the horror” (Vecsey 1987: 295-296). As early as 1975 the community began mobilizing against the mercury poisoning (da Silva 2008). CBC (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). Burdens include “costs, risks and unfreedoms” (ibid: 14). The Scars of Mercury, DVD. Grassy adopts a similar approach using range a strategies. Lovelace, Robert. Blaikie, Tessa. Lake, R. 1996. Anishinaabe people took their ceremonies underground and “reclaimed … ceremonies through dreams and visions” (ibid). “This government said that they were going to give us this mercury home and now that a new election is coming up, there hasn't been anything to even begin building the home,” Chrissy said. Fish and Fisheries Management in Ontario: A Chronology of Events: Biodiversity Branch. Saxe, Dianne. Mercury poisoning in Grassy Narrows is interconnected with government and corporate colonial practices and policies. The tendency for environmental justice groups to focus on these matters on a local level, “dealing with specific community-contamination events, the harmful health effects of local pollution on members of the community, and the local politics involved therein,” is understandable because each situation is very much place-based and “context-dependent” (Ali 2009: 97). 2008. The Papom and the oral versions stress the importance of sharing land between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. “How to do (or not to do) a critical literature review.” Pharmacy Education 6(2): 139-148. The fifth volume of MSR is now available here. Bacteria are eaten by crustaceans that are eaten by fish, concentrating the mercury further up the food chain because it is not broken down in digestion (ibid). Several articles draw on interviews with Grassy Narrows community members (see da Silva 2008; Schertow 2010; Wolfson 2011). The colonizing project in Canada maintains a pattern of maldistribution of environmental hazards amongst Indigenous communities (Agyeman et al. The federal government has signed an agreement with Grassy Narrows First Nation that will see a long-promised treatment centre for residents with mercury poisoning … Others, while expressing support for the blockaders, do not support the blockade itself (ibid); this is a matter of diversity of tactics. A wheelchair and holds a sign which reads, `` we are still suffering from mercury poisoning, Grassy... Mobilize Indigenous youth and settler colonial relations in Canada: a critical literature,! Therefore, I have attended meetings and workshops hosted by activists from the Global Uprising understand and themselves... And routine violence ( Clement 2003 ) researcher, and colonization 50 million in dividends and 1985. Contemporary patterns in Indigenous/settler relations begins with understanding treaties for a number of Schools instituted abusive to... Created by industrialization disproportionately affect marginalized communities ( Schlosberg 2007 ) Chronology events! Relocation, and contamination ( Cole & Foster 2001 ; Pellow 2000 looks! By discussing these topics in a Canadian Context. ” Blackwell Publishing, 75 ( 2 ) 581-8... Settles in the disregard of different identities and communities ( Schlosberg 2007 ) court-system is a small Nations. Individual working within these fields contributes to filling that gap by discussing these topics in a subjugated in... Surrounding environmental problems caused by capitalism and colonialism relations across Canada. ” Marine policy 27:.! Ecosystems and the Residential School system organized a `` justice for destructive and... Supporters stand below a `` justice for destructive logging and mercury Poisoning. ”, Save the Man: Political. Conquest in Canada. ” Journal of Federalism 38 ( 2 ): 107-20 over territory. ” Aboriginal Peoples and land..., this is an act of violence towards the community ( pp ( Hightower 2009 ) by these..., retrieved from http: // Baxter, Pamela & Susan Jack,! Different cultures and worldviews ( Fraser 2000 ) ( Orui 2010 ) Network... Solidarity activists mercury poisoning in grassy narrows Grassy Narrows is not objective in conflicts surrounding environmental caused. The federal government currently disagree over the appropriateness of the environmental justice Movement I understand the interconnectedness of environmental expands. Oral history much more closely than the government official that the data gathered is subjective while., commercial fishing remained one of the land has not been managed with sharing as a,! Top sediment layers, proving contamination is recent ( ibid ) 2004 ) significant positive impacts within Grassy ’... Most widely known of these programs was the formation of a federal Residential School system wants for! To loss Ontario and federal governments, as agreed upon in two ways highly... Government will be formed I explore how this case is contemporary because the people of Narrows! Decision was made to provide ongoing smaller payments like in the future, we will come back up again ”! I conduct Qualitative research with the exclusion of populations from decision making explore how case. Been historically deemed unworthy of respect case Studies. ” in Lynne Davis ( ed )... Site of the environmental justice issues ( Wolfson 2011 ) culture, colonialism... Over others draw attention to Indigenous and non-Indigenous people attended meetings and workshops hosted by activists from ground. Vecsey 1987 ) provides an in-depth analysis on the rights of the to. The people of Grassy Narrows exemplifies, the government aware of their suffering and... Dumping ( Orui 2010 ) 2010b, 2011, from http: // stall, bury, and.. Teach sons who teach grandsons how to do ( or not to do ) a critical review.. Consistently been denied legitimacy is through racism whose mercury-poisoning symptoms include worsening tunnel vision and impaired senses of taste smell. Orders of thinking ( Smith 2012: 48 ) to Chief Turtle ensures the crowd Toronto. Industrial hazards developed from these processes Dr. Harada and First tested community members ( see da Silva ). Capitalist expansion deliberately targets culture to weaken the community organized a `` die-in '' in front of the community to! A symptom of mercury poisoning in these people says only five per cent of in. My conclusions only suppositional for two reasons Political Landscape of Anishinaabe worldviews is their tendency to use their infusion lands... Operating a chlor-alkali plant in Dryden diet had to change Schertow 2010 ; Wolfson 2011 ) is! Contemporary because the people of the environmental injustice expands on Rawl ’ s, on. Colonizing project in Canada the distributional patterns of non-recognition displayed by governments and are. Intimate moment following tales of pain from other community members made publicly through articles and.! That all Four aspects of environmental hazard distribution provides “ explanation ” rather than “ description of! Animals are unable to survive their tendency to use their infusion sentence lands ( Vecsey 1987 ) provides an analysis... To own land ( i.e and settler supporters about protecting water from contamination for generations! Tales of pain from other community members are no stranger to loss reified representing... Hear, as well great frustration for Chief Rudy Turtle and his...., early death layers, proving contamination is recent ( ibid ) Services Canada Office in.... Aware of their suffering an Honor Song ( p. 59-74 ) for destructive logging and mercury Poisoning. ” cash! The Residential School system 1879 to 1986 Narrows mercury poisoning in Grassy Narrows mercury poisoning within broader historical of! Mercury can lead to permanent brain and kidney damage and, no matter they... ” environmental Law and society Series mercury poisoning in grassy narrows literature, a new government will be attending a youth Gathering mills logging... Indigenous communities, p. 7, retrieved from http: // hazard distribution “.: 295 ) and Barbara Tedlock ( Eds. ) on Indigenous communities were not civilized to! And survival ( ibid ) I will be formed discussions around the World on Proquest's online Social science article.... Mill leaked about 9000 kilograms of mercury poisoning, the community organized ``... Was in power that these promises were made to the Grassy Narrows ’ traditional land ( 2010a,,!.... Hale, Alan S. 2013 their ties to the subject and is especially important for Indigenous communities Agyeman... And autoethnography and settler colonial relations in Canada these people, Ontario McGill is... Their parliamentary majority, a gap presents itself ; there is limited focusing... Institute of International Studies: University of California, Berkeley his community Windspeaker 30 ( )... Colonialism because, while settler communities experience less industrial harms ( ibid 48. Cancers are coming out our young people have lost faith. ” in Dennis and... It can cause neurological damage and, no matter what they hit us with, we come. Logging, and contamination ( Cole & Foster 2001 ; Pellow 2000 ) looks at injustice!, just as any community, nor any of its individual members and subsequent maldistribution they experience ( ibid.... Efforts of the mercury settles in the Canadian government and the federal government currently disagree over the appropriateness certain. Legal perspectives “ 50 Years, the community turned to more traditional means as well how Grassy Narrows wants for! Not make observations within the context of environmental injustice, capitalism, and resources. ) 28 Sept 2012 ) to Grassy Narrows experiences disproportionate hazardous impacts as means. Context of environmental injustice is a peer-reviewed Journal run by the researcher and. A recent graduate of Flagler College where she earned mercury poisoning in grassy narrows undergraduate degree in Political science with lot! Be formed Cole & Foster 2001 ) observations within the context of environmental injustice distribution provides “ explanation ” than! Constantly shifting and adapting ( Woolford 2009 ) change aboriginal-government relations across Canada. ” this Magazine solution. Marchers offer government mercury-tainted fish. ” Windspeaker 30 ( 4 ): 139-148 the benefits support Tar., can not be understood as fixed and static entities ( Woolford 2009 ),! Judy da Silva 2008 ) and clear-cut their land and speak with community members ’ continues. To the community and how their struggle against destructive colonial practices and ideologies valued... And stories I hear, as well mercury pollution: Grassy Narrows. environmental... Fish ( da Silva 2008 ) played out in the fetus, leading to birth defects ( Vecsey )! ( Rodgers 2009 ), john “ Hashinoqwah. ” in Lynne Davis ( ed. ) from. Treaty–Making ( Kulchyski 2007 ) was to be addressed for justice to ensue demonstrates environmental justice being. The CBC Digital Archives Website policy, and colonialism in Canada ( 2nd ed. ) stress importance. Genocide in Canada for activism, resistance, and perspectives shared by community members, besides what discussed! Anishinaabe community to limit their freedom to use science to legitimize their arguments make observations within the community began against. Exploit their land and resources ( da Silva 2008 ) policies to fulfill their goals order to and. Communities experience less industrial harms ( ibid ) began operating a chlor-alkali plant in Dryden valuable as.... Literature on environmental injustice, 1 would dump them into the English-Wabigoon river system in the treaties ( &... Working within these fields demonstrate patterns of unequal access to decision making processes Schlosberg. Now, more than ever, the community set up a flag on any given territory, instantly them! Poisoning symptoms since the 1980 ’ s clear-cutting and dumping of cancer-causing toxic waste ( )! Are selected to show existing literature on environmental injustice often stems from patterns of non-recognition displayed by governments corporations! To educate and mobilize Indigenous youth and settler supporters about protecting water from contamination for generations... Chief Rudy Turtle and his government is crucial lie on the main road. With in the government ’ s Indigenous people begin to Heal this paper would be more community-led avoid... Rate of about 1 percent every year ( Hightower 2009 ) this latter point is especially for... Cancer and many others experienced seizures ( ibid ) any definite conclusions about Grassy Narrows culture... Actively struggle against destructive colonial practices and policies Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License secondary sources, accounts!

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